GPstuff Learning Notes (GPstuff document v4.6)

阅读 GPstuff 包中的函数的源代码,对其中注释做的笔记,在 official document 中有些内容没有写。


From prior to posterior predictive


Bayes inference

Observation model: yf,ϕi=1np(yifi,ϕ)\bm{y}|\bm{f},\phi \sim \prod_{i=1}^n p(y_i|f_i,\phi)

GP prior: f(x)θGP(m(x),k(x,xθ))f(\bm{x})|\theta \sim \mathcal{GP}\left(m(\bm{x}), k(\bm{x},\bm{x}'|\theta)\right)

hyperprior: ϑ[θ,ϕ]p(θ)p(ϕ)\vartheta \triangleq [\theta,\phi] \sim p(\theta)p(\phi)

The latent function value f(x)f(\bm{x}) at fixed x\bm{x} is called a latent variable.

Any set of function values f[f1,f2,]T\bm{f} \triangleq [f_1,f_2,\dots]^T has a multivariate Gaussian distribution

p(fX,θ)=N(f0,Kf,f)p(\bm{f}|\bm{X},\theta) = N(\bm{f}|\bm{0},\bm{K}_{f,f})

Predict the values f~\tilde{\bm{f}} at new input locations X~\tilde{\bm{X}}, the joint distribution is

[ff~]X,X~,θN(0,[Kf,fKf,f~Kf~,fKf~,f~])\begin{bmatrix} \bm{f}\\ \tilde{\bm{f}} \end{bmatrix}| \bm{X}, \tilde{\bm{X}}, \theta \sim N\left(\bm{0}, \begin{bmatrix} K_{f,f} & K_{f,\tilde{f}}\\ K_{\tilde{f},f} & K_{\tilde{f},\tilde{f}} \end{bmatrix}\right)

The conditional distribution of f~\tilde{\bm{f}} given f\bm{f} is

f~f,X,X~,θN(Kf~,fKf,f1f,Kf~,f~Kf~,fKf,f1Kf,f~)\tilde{f} | \bm{f},\bm{X},\tilde{\bm{X}}, \theta \sim N(\bm{K}_{\tilde{f},f}\bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1}\bm{f},\, \bm{K}_{\tilde{f},\tilde{f}}-\bm{K}_{\tilde{f},f}\bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1}\bm{K}_{f,\tilde{f}})

So the conditional distribution of the latent function f(x~)f(\tilde{\bm{x}}) is also a GP with

  • conditional mean function: Ef~f,θ,ϕ[f(x~)]=k(x~,Xθ)Kf,f1f\textcolor{green}{\mathbb{E}_{\tilde{\bm{f}}|\bm{f},\theta,\phi}[f(\tilde{\bm{x}})]} = k(\tilde{\bm{x}},\bm{X}|\theta) \bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1} \bm{f}
  • conditional covariance function: Covf~f,θ,ϕ[f(x~)]=k(x~,x~)k(x~,Xθ)Kf,f1k(X,x~θ)\textcolor{green}{\text{Cov}_{\tilde{\bm{f}}|\bm{f},\theta,\phi}[f(\tilde{\bm{x}})]} = k(\tilde{\bm{x}},\tilde{\bm{x}}') - k(\tilde{\bm{x}},\bm{X}|\theta)\bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1}k(\bm{X},\tilde{\bm{x}}'|\theta) (不确定等号左边的符号是否正确)

以上只是纯理论推导,在没有获得相应的观察的情况下,所以没有涉及到y\bm{y},只涉及到了 latent variables f(x)\bm{f}(\bm{x}) and latent function f\bm{f}

First inference step is to form the conditional posterior of the latenet variables f\bm{f} given the parameters ϑ\vartheta (D{X,y}\mathcal{D}\triangleq\{\bm{X},\bm{y}\}) (这里暂时假设已经取得,依赖于 observation model 的选择或设计,在后面会讨论如何计算,实际上除了经典GP都需要用近似方法)

p(fD,θ,ϕ)=p(yf,ϕ)observation modelp(fX,θ)GP priorp(yf,ϕ)p(fX,θ)dfp(yX,ϑ)(8)p(\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi) = \frac{ \overbrace{p(\bm{y}|\bm{f},\phi)}^\text{observation model} \overbrace{p(\bm{f}|\bm{X},\theta)}^\text{GP prior} }{ \int p(\bm{y}|\bm{f},\phi) p(\bm{f}|\bm{X},\theta) d\bm{f} \textcolor{green}{\triangleq p(\bm{y}|\bm{X},\vartheta)}} \tag{8}

After this, we can marginalize over the parameters ϑ\vartheta to obtain the marginal posterior distribution for the latent vriables f\bm{f}

p(fD)=p(fD,θ,ϕ)see abovep(θ,ϕD)hyperpriordθdϕp(\bm{f}|\mathcal{D}) = \int \overbrace{p(\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi)}^\text{see above} \overbrace{p(\theta,\phi|\mathcal{D})}^\text{hyperprior} d\theta d\phi

The conditional posterior predictive distribution p(f~D,ϑ,x~)p(\tilde{f}|\mathcal{D},\vartheta,\tilde{\bm{x}}) can be evaluated exactly or approximated, (同样,在后面会讨论如何计算,这里暂时假设已经取得)

p(f~D,ϑ,x~)=p(f~,fD,ϑ,x~)df=p(f~f,X,ϑ,x~)got from GP priorp(fD,ϑ)got from Bayes’ theoremdf(Not sure if this is correct.)\color{red} \begin{aligned} p(\tilde{f}|\mathcal{D},\vartheta,\tilde{\bm{x}}) &= \int p(\tilde{f},\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\vartheta,\tilde{\bm{x}}) \, d\bm{f} \\ &= \int \overbrace{ p(\tilde{f}|\bm{f},\bm{X},\vartheta,\tilde{\bm{x}}) }^\text{got from GP prior} \cdot \overbrace{ p(\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\vartheta) }^\text{got from Bayes' theorem} \, d\bm{f} \\ &\text{(Not sure if this is correct.)} \end{aligned}

The posterior predictive distribution p(f~D,x~)p(\tilde{f}|\mathcal{D},\tilde{\bm{x}}) is obtained by marginalizing out the parameters ϑ\vartheta from p(f~D,ϑ,x~)p(\tilde{f}|\mathcal{D},\vartheta,\tilde{\bm{x}}).

The posterior joint predictive distribution p(y~D,θ,ϕ,x~)p(\tilde{\bm{y}}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi,\tilde{\bm{x}}) requires integration over p(f~D,ϑ,x~)p(\tilde{f}|\mathcal{D},\vartheta,\tilde{\bm{x}}). (Usually not used.)

The marginal predicted distribution for individual y~i\tilde{y}_i is

p(y~iD,x~i,θ,ϕ)=p(y~if~i,ϕ)p(f~iD,x~i,θ,ϕ)df~i(10)p(\tilde{y}_i|\mathcal{D},\tilde{\bm{x}}_i,\theta,\phi) = \int p(\tilde{y}_i|\tilde{f}_i,\phi) p(\tilde{f}_i|\mathcal{D},\tilde{\bm{x}}_i,\theta,\phi) \, d\tilde{f}_i \tag{10}

If the parameters are considered fixed, using GP’s marginalization and conditionalization properties (still Gaussian), we can evaluate the posterior predictive mean mp(f~D,θ,ϕ)m_p(\tilde{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi) from the conditional mean Ef~f,θ,ϕ[f~]\color{green}\mathbb{E}_{\tilde{\bm{f}}|\bm{f},\theta,\phi}[\tilde{\bm{f}}] (where f~f(x~)\tilde{\bm{f}} \triangleq f(\tilde{\bm{x}})) (前面推导已经得到), through marginalizing out the latent variables f\bm{f},

mp(f~D,θ,ϕ)=Ef~f,θ,ϕ[f~]p(fD,θ,ϕ)df=代入并保留只与f相关的量k(x~,Xθ)Kf,f1EfD,θ,ϕ[f](11)m_p(\tilde{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi) = \int \textcolor{green}{\mathbb{E}_{\tilde{\bm{f}}|\bm{f},\theta,\phi}[\tilde{\bm{f}}]}\, p(\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi) d\bm{f} \xlongequal{\text{\color{red}代入并保留只与$f$相关的量}} k(\tilde{\bm{x}},\bm{X}|\theta) \bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1} \mathbb{E}_{\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi}[\bm{f}] \tag{11}

The posterior predictive covariance between any set of latent variables f~\tilde{\bm{f}} is (这一步的推导是利用了Wikipedia: Law of total covariance

Covf~D,θ,ϕ[f~]=EfD,θ,ϕ[Covf~f,θ,ϕ[f~]]+CovfD,θ,ϕ[Ef~f,θ,ϕ[f~]]=Covf~f,θ,ϕ[f~]independent of f+CovfD,θ,ϕ[k(x~,Xθ)Kf,f1f]]k(x~,X)Kf,f1CovfD,θ,ϕ[f]Kf,f1k(X,x~)\begin{aligned} \text{Cov}_{\tilde{\bm{f}}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi} [\tilde{\bm{f}}] &= \mathbb{E}_{\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi}\left[ \textcolor{green}{\text{Cov}_{\tilde{\bm{f}}|\bm{f},\theta,\phi}[\tilde{\bm{f}}]} \right] + \text{Cov}_{\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi}\left[ \textcolor{green}{\mathbb{E}_{\tilde{\bm{f}}|\bm{f},\theta,\phi}[\tilde{\bm{f}}]} \right] \\ &= \overbrace{\textcolor{green}{\text{Cov}_{\tilde{\bm{f}}|\bm{f},\theta,\phi}[\tilde{\bm{f}}]}}^{\text{independent of $\bm{f}$}} + \underbrace{\text{Cov}_{\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi}\left[ k(\tilde{\bm{x}},\bm{X}|\theta) \bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1} \bm{f}] \right]}_{k(\tilde{\bm{x}},\bm{X})\bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1}\text{Cov}_{\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi}[\bm{f}]\bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1}k(\bm{X},\tilde{\bm{x}}')} \end{aligned}

参考 Wikipedia: Law of total covarianceCov[X,Y]=E[Cov[X,YZ]]+Cov[E[XZ],E[YZ]]\text{Cov}[X,Y] = \mathbb{E}\left[ \text{Cov}[X,Y|Z]] + \text{Cov}[\mathbb{E}[X|Z], \mathbb{E}[Y|Z] \right]

Then, the posterior predictive covariance function kp(x~,x~D,θ,ϕ)k_p(\tilde{\bm{x}},\tilde{\bm{x}}'|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi) is

kp(x~,x~D,θ,ϕ)=k(x~,x~θ)k(x~,Xθ)(Kf,f1Kf,f1CovfD,θ,ϕKf,f1)k(X,x~θ)(13)k_p(\tilde{\bm{x}},\tilde{\bm{x}}'|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi) = k(\tilde{\bm{x}},\tilde{\bm{x}}'|\theta) - k(\tilde{\bm{x}},\bm{X}|\theta)\left( \bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1}-\bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1}\text{Cov}_{\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi}\bm{K}_{f,f}^{-1} \right) k(\bm{X},\tilde{\bm{x}}'|\theta) \tag{13}

So, even if the exact posterior p(f~D,θ,ϕ)isnotavailablep(\tilde{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi) is not available

From latents f\bm{f} to observations y\bm{y}


Gaussian observation model: yiN(fi,σ2)y_i \sim N(f_i,\sigma^2)

p(yifi,θ,ϕincludes σ)=p(y_i|f_i,\theta,\overbrace{\phi}^\text{includes $\sigma$}) = \dots

Marginal likelihood p(yX,θ,σ2)p(\bm{y}|\bm{X},\theta,\sigma^2) is

p(yX,θ,σ2)=N(y0,Kf,f+σ2I)p(\bm{y}|\bm{X},\theta,\sigma^2) = N(\bm{y}|\bm{0},\bm{K}_{f,f}+\sigma^2\bm{I})

The conditional posterior of latent variables f\bm{f} has analytical solution now, (should be done through completing the square. Bishop’s book or GPML book should have details.)

fD,θ,ϕN(Kf,f(Kf,f+σ2I)1y,Kf,fKf,f(Kf,f+σ2I)1Kf,f)(15)\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi \sim N( \bm{K}_{f,f}(\bm{K}_{f,f}+\sigma^2\bm{I})^{-1}\bm{y},\quad \bm{K}_{f,f}-\bm{K}_{f,f}(\bm{K}_{f,f}+\sigma^2\bm{I})^{-1}\bm{K}_{f,f} ) \tag{15}

Since the conditional posterior of f\bm{f} is Gaussian, the posterior process is still a GP, whose mean and covariance function is obtained from Eqs. (11) and (13).

f~D,θ,ϕGP(mp(x~),kp(x~,x~)))(16)\tilde{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi \sim \mathcal{GP}(m_p(\tilde{\bm{x}}),\quad k_p(\tilde{\bm{x}},\tilde{\bm{x}}'))) \tag{16}

以上公式(15)直接给出了 EfD,θ,ϕ[f]\mathbb{E}_{\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi}[\bm{f}]CovfD,θ,ϕ[f]\text{Cov}_{\bm{f}|\mathcal{D},\theta,\phi}[\bm{f}],代入到(11)和(13)中就得到mpm_pkpk_p

Digging into Demos


All 'type','FULL'.

lik_inputdependentnoise + gpcf_sexp + gpcf_exp (prior_t for lengthScale_prior and magnSigma2_prior) + 'latent_method', 'Laplace' + gp_optim

lik_t + gpcf_sexp + 'latent_method', 'Laplace' + gp_optim

1D and 2D data

(line 241) if flat priors are used, there might be need to increase gp.latent_opt.maxiter for laplace algorithm to converge properly. gp.latent_opt.maxiter=1e6; (??这有可能是我算不出来的原因)


All 'type','FULL'.

lik_gaussian (prior_logunif) + gpcf_sexp (prior_t and prior_sqrtunif) + gp_optim

lik_t (prior_loglogunif, prior_logunif) + gpcf_sexp + 'latent_method', 'EP' + gp_optim

lik_t (prior_logunif) + gpcf_sexp + 'latent_method', 'MCMC' + gp_mc


Note! If the prior is ‘prior_fixed’ then the parameter in question is considered fixed and it is not handled in optimization, grid integration, MCMC etc.

整个代码包用 structure 实现了类似 OOP 的形式,因为开发时候 MATLAB 对 OOP 的支持还很差。 导致代码很难定位。


type - Type of Gaussian process

  • ‘FULL’ full GP (default)
  • ‘FIC’ fully independent conditional sparse approximation(需要inducing point X_u
  • ‘PIC’ partially independent conditional sparse approximation
  • ‘CS+FIC’ compact support + FIC model sparse approximation
  • ‘DTC’ deterministic training conditional sparse approximation
  • ‘SOR’ subset of regressors sparse approximation
  • ‘VAR’ variational sparse approximation

infer_params - String defining which parameters are inferred. The default is covariance+likelihood.

  • ‘covariance’ = infer parameters of the covariance functions
  • ‘likelihood’ = infer parameters of the likelihood
  • ‘inducing’ = infer inducing inputs (in sparse approximations): W = gp.X_u(😃
  • ‘covariance+likelihood’ = infer covariance function and likelihood parameters (有什么具体的区别?不是很明白)
  • ‘covariance+inducing’ = infer covariance function parameters and inducing inputs
  • ‘covariance+likelihood+inducing’

The additional fields when the likelihood is not Gaussian (lik is not lik_gaussian or lik_gaussiansmt) are:

latent_method and latent_opt

latent_method - Method for marginalizing over latent values (什么意思?用likelihood计算predictive时需要对ff^*进行marginalization,需要对latent value进行积分。参见GPstuff Doc Eq. (10) ). Possible methods are ‘Laplace’ (default), ‘EP’ and ‘MCMC’.
latent_opt - Additional option structure for the chosen latent method. See default values for options below.

  • ‘MCMC’
    • method - Function handle to function which samples the latent values @esls (default), @scaled_mh or @scaled_hmc
    • f - 1xn vector of latent values. The default is [].
  • ‘Laplace’
    • optim_method - Method to find the posterior mode: ‘newton’ (default except for lik_t), ‘stabilized-newton’, ‘fminuc_large’, or ‘lik_specific’ (applicable and default for lik_t)
    • tol
  • ‘EP’
  • ‘robust-EP’

The additional fields needed in sparse approximations are:

X_u - Inducing inputs, no default, has to be set when FIC, PIC, PIC_BLOCK, VAR, DTC, or SOR is used.

Xu_prior - Prior for inducing inputs. The default is prior_unif.

gp_optim Optimize paramaters of a Gaussian process


  • hmc_opt - Options structure for HMC sampler (see hmc2_opt). When this is given the covariance function and likelihood parameters are sampled with hmc2 (respecting infer_params option).

  • sls_opt - Options structure for slice sampler (see sls_opt). When this is given the covariance function and likelihood parameters are sampled with sls (respecting infer_params option).

  • latent_opt - Options structure for latent variable sampler. When this is given the latent variables are sampled with function stored in the field in the GP structure. See gp_set. (在gp_set中设置的 'latent_method','MCMC','latent_opt',struct('method',@scaled_mh) 与这里的 latent_opt 不同!!比如在这个例子中,这里的 latent_opt 实际是设置 scaled_mh 的 option。这里容易混淆!)

  • lik_hmc_opt - Options structure for HMC sampler (see hmc2_opt). When this is given the parameters of the likelihood are sampled with hmc2. This can be used to have different hmc options for covariance and likelihood parameters.

  • lik_sls_opt - Options structure for slice sampler (see sls_opt). When this is given the parameters of the likelihood are sampled with hmc2. This can be used to have different hmc options for covariance and likelihood parameters.

  • lik_gibbs_opt - Options structure for Gibbs sampler. Some likelihood function parameters need to be sampled with Gibbs sampling (such as lik_smt). The Gibbs sampler is implemented in the respective lik_* file.

*_pak and *_unpak

  • Combine * parameters into one vector.
  • Extract * parameters from the vector.

For lik_*_pak and lik_*_unpak, this is a mandatory subfunction used for example in energy and gradient computations (calculated by gp_eg through calling gp_e and gp_g).

我要用的 likelihood function

lik_gaussian Create a Gaussian likelihood structure

  • sigma2 - variance [0.1]
  • sigma2_prior - prior for sigma2 [prior_logunif] (相当于默认log(σ2)\log(\sigma^2)是uniform的,所以并不是在[0,+inf)[0,+\inf)完全uniform的?)
  • n - number of observations per input (See using average observations below) (不要用这个参数,这个是用来平均 sigma2 的。)

lik_t Create a Student-t likelihood structure

%                  __ n
% p(y|f, z) = || i=1 C(nu,s2) * (1 + 1/nu * (y_i - f_i)^2/s2 )^(-(nu+1)/2)

Parameters for Student-t likelihood [default]

  • sigma2 - scale squared [1]
  • nu - degrees of freedom [4] (这是 degree of freedom 通常是固定的)
  • sigma2_prior - prior for sigma2 [prior_logunif] (为什么是logunif?)
  • nu_prior - prior for nu [prior_fixed]

Can be infered by:

  • Laplace approximation (need lik_t_ll, lik_t_llg, lik_t_llg2, lik_t_llg3)
  • MCMC (need lik_t_ll, lik_t_llg)
  • EP (need lik_t_llg2, lik_t_tiltedMoments, lik_t_siteDeriv)
  • robust-EP (need lik_t_tiltedMoments2, lik_t_siteDeriv2)

lik_gaussiansmt Create a Gaussian scale mixture likelihood structure with priors producing approximation of the Student’s t

The parameters of this likelihood can be inferred only by Gibbs sampling by calling GP_MC.

我要用的 covariance function

gpcf_sexp Create a squared exponential (exponentiated quadratic) covariance function

  • magnSigma2 - magnitude (squared) [0.1]
  • lengthScale - length scale for each input. [1] This can be either scalar - corresponding to an isotropic function or vector defining own length-scale for - each input direction. (为每个输入定义不同的length scale,自动选择)
  • magnSigma2_prior - prior for magnSigma2 [prior_logunif] (为什么是logunif?保正?)
  • lengthScale_prior - prior for lengthScale [prior_t] (为什么是prior_t?不需要保正?)
  • metric - metric structure used by the covariance function [] (不懂)
  • selectedVariables - vector defining which inputs are used [all] selectedVariables is short hand for using metric_euclidean with corresponding components
  • kalman_deg - Degree of approximation in type ‘KALMAN’ [6](不懂)

实际使用中,把 demo_regression1.m 中的 lengthScale_priorprior_unit 换成 prior_logunitmagnSigma2_priorprior_logunit 换成 prior_unit, 对 MAP 结果的影响并不大。(猜测是因为在优化过程中,并没有取到对应的负的值,所以没有产生错误,因为在 inputParser.parse 中明确要求了 magnSigma2lengthScale 必须为正。


gpcf_sexp_lp: Evaluate the log prior of covariance function parameters, returns logp(θ)\log p(\theta)

我要用的 priors


prior_sqrtunif Uniform prior structure for the square root of the parameter

意思是参数如果是 θ\theta ,那么 p(θ)Uniformp(\sqrt\theta) \sim \text{Uniform} 。 适合于比较把 σ2\sigma^2 整体当作一个参数的情况,然后要求 σ\sigma 是均匀分布。(但是这里应该是要求正数才对吧?)

prior_logunif Uniform prior structure for the logarithm of the parameter

意思是参数如果是 θ\theta ,那么 p(logθ)Uniformp(\log\theta) \sim \text{Uniform}

prior_t Student-t prior structure

Parameters for Student-t prior [default]

  • mu - location [0]
  • s2 - scale [1]
  • nu - degrees of freedom [4]
  • mu_prior - prior for mu [prior_fixed] (这里居然是 fixed,为什么?是否合理?)
  • s2_prior - prior for s2 [prior_fixed] (这里居然是 fixed,为什么?是否合理?)
  • nu_prior - prior for nu [prior_fixed] (这里居然是 fixed,为什么?是否合理?)

如果参数是 θ\theta ,那么 θST(μ,σ2,ν)\theta \sim \mathcal{ST}(\mu,\sigma^2,\nu) 。 默认参数都是固定的。 μ\mu是任意的?sigma2sigma^2是正的?ν\nu必须是整数)



  • /Volumes/ExternalDisk/git-collections/gpstuff/gp/demo_hierprior.m pl=prior_t(‘mu_prior’,prior_t); 未看

Other hidden functions

gp_eg calls gp_e, gp_g

  • GP_EG: Evaluate the energy function (un-normalized negative marginal log posterior) and its gradient
  • GP_E: Evaluate the energy function (un-normalized negative log marginal posterior)
  • GP_G: Evaluate the gradient of energy (GP_E) for Gaussian Process

The energy is minus log posterior cost function:

E=EDATA+EPRIORlogp(YX,θ)logp(θ)E = EDATA + EPRIOR - \log p(\bm{Y}|\bm{X},\theta) - \log p(\theta)

where θ\theta represents the parameters (lengthScale, magnSigma2…), X\bm{X} is inputs and Y\bm{Y} is observations (regression) or latent values (non-Gaussian likelihood).


  • (not sure why) 不用 lik_gaussiansmt
  • lik_inputdependentnoise() 只支持 'type','FULL',参见 gpla_e.m line 162 的 switch,在 FIC 没有相应的支持
  • 'latent_method','MCMC' 不能和 gp_optim 配合使用:(100% sure)
    • 设置FIC 时,在 gp_g <- gp_eg 中 line 556 只计算 gradient w.r.t. Gaussian likelihood function parameters,没有考虑 non-Gaussian + MCMC 的情况。
    • PIC line 755 同样没有
    • CS+FIC line 996 同样没有
    • DTC, VAR, SOR line 1179 同样没有
    • KALMAN 不确定
  • derivative observations have not been implemented for sparse GPs !!! (see gp_trcov.m line 54)
  • gp_set/latent_method 设置用来 sample latent variables 的算法。 (see gp_mc line 341)
  • 在使用 lik_t + gp_mc 时候,必须显示地设置 latent_optlik_hmc_opt,不然在 gp_mc 中采样时候会出现少对一种进行采样的情况。(不确定)(也不确定对其它likelihood的情况)


Matrix dimensions must agree.
Error in fminscg (line 182)
xplus = x + sigma*d;
  • 报这个错误通常是因为在 gp_g 中没有处理相应的 gradient,注意选择匹配的 latent_method。


  1. FULL + lik_gaussian + gpcf-sexp + MAP 成功
  2. FULL + lik_gaussian + gpcf-sexp + MCMC 成功
  3. FIC + lik_gaussian + gpcf-sexp + MAP 成功
  4. FIC + lik_gaussian + gpcf-sexp + MCMC 成功
  5. FULL + lik_t + jitter-1e-3 + ARD + Laplace + train-only-around-15-steps: 效果完美,输出的1,2,3-SD coverage始终是100% (为什么overfitting会这么严重???)
  6. FULL + lik_t + jitter-1e-3 + Laplace + train-only-9-steps: 需要把 jitter 减小,有效果,但不好。
  7. FIC-25 + lik_t + jitter-1e-3 + ARD + Laplace + train-only-around-15-steps:
  8. FULL + lik_t + jitter-1e-6 + ARD + Laplace + train-200 + sample-100-no-thining: 效果很好,PML=1.29%, QML123=100%,大约1056秒
  9. FIC-25 + covariance+likelihood+inducing + lik_t + jitter-1e-6 + ARD + Laplace + train-200 + sample-100-thin-60-1: 效果很好,PML=3.97%,QML123=100%,大约需要计算4个小时

不成功的实验: 10. FIC-25 + covariance+likelihood+inducing + lik_t + jitter-1e-6 + ARD + Laplace + train-1000 + sample-100-thin-60-1: 算了14个多小时只采样完16个…… 11. FULL + lik_t + jitter-1e-6 + ARD + 'latent_method', 'MCMC' + train-200 + sampleXXX: 相比于实验8,没有任何regression效果,怀疑某些参数的设置有问题


  1. FIC-25 + lik_t + MCMC + gp_mc + GPz-init:lengthScale 优化出来的结果都一样
  2. FULL + lik_t + Lapalace + gpcf-sexp + MAP
  3. FULL + lik_t + Lapalace + gpcf-sexp + MCMC
  4. FULL + lik_t + EP + gpcf-sexp + MAP
  5. FULL + lik_t + EP + gpcf-sexp + MCMC
  6. FULL + lik_t + MCMC + gpcf-sexp + MAP
  7. FULL + lik_t + MCMC + gpcf-sexp + MAP


怎么实现early stop?

怎么实现 relevance vector machine (RVM)?

怎么实现 GPz?